Nuerodevelopment | Anatomy2Medicine



  • “Theory of Cognitive Development”


      • it was given by Jean Piaget
      • Jean Piaget gave four stages of theory of cognition, viz.,


  • Sensorimotor
  • Preoperational thought
  • Concrete operations
  • Formal operations


      • The sequence of stages depends on CNS growth and life experiences, and to grow, infants must negotiate one stage successfully before going to the next.
    • A 6 months old child can perform


  • Sit steadily, leaning forward on hands
  • One hand approach and grasp of toys
  • Babbles


    • “Attachment Behaviour”, which develops during the first year of life, was described by John Bowlby


  • According to John Bowlby, early separation of infants


from their mothers had severe negative effects on

children’s emotional and intellectual development.


  • “Stranger anxiety” in infants gets fully developed around . 8 months


        • Stranger anxiety
          • Babies exposed to only one caretaker are more likely to have stranger anxiety.
          • It may occur even when infant is in mother’s arms.


  • In contrast, separation anxiety usually develops between 10 and 18 months of age.(High yield MCQs)



    • Adolescence
    • The average age for onset of puberty in girls is 11 years, and in boys is 13 years.
    • Testosterone is responsible for musculinization of boys and estradiol for feminization of girls.
    • High testosterone levels are correlated with aggression and impulsivity in men.
    • Decreased levels of estrogens may be responsible for

depressed mood.


  • The most common cause of impotence in middle age is alcohol intake


  • Neuropsychiatric changes associated with aging
    • Psychomotor speed declines
    • Older people take longer to learn new material, but complete learning does occur
    • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) remains stable until age 80
    • Verbal ability is usually maintained with age.