Behavioral Science | Anatomy2Medicine

Behavioral Science

      • Subtests of a Verbal Wechsler Scale,
        • Arithmatic  
        • Vocabulary   
        • Digit span

 

  • Verbal IQ (VIQ

 

      • Included seven tests and provided two subindexes; verbal comprehension and working memory.
      • The Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) included the following tests:
        • Information
        • Similarities
        • Vocabulary
      • The Working Memory Index (WMI) included:
        • Arithmetic
        • Digit Span
    • The lower age limit of the patient for applying Rorschach test is 3 years
    • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is calculated by using following formula – (MA/CA) x l00
      • Where MA—Mental age of the person CA—Chronological age of person
      • A male child of 15 years, with a mental age of 9 yearhas an I.Q. of 60

 

 

  • Psychodrama

 

        • A form of psychotherapy in which a group of patients act out assigned  roles, and in doing so, are able to gain insight into their own mental disturbances

 

  • Psychoanalysis.

 

        • A method of obtaining a detailed account of past and present mental and emotional experiences and repressions in order to determine the source,and to eliminate and/or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in emotions and behaviour.

 

  • Psychobiology.

 

        • A method of psychoanalysis employing distributive analysis, which includes a study of all mental and physical factors involved in the growth and development of an individual.

 

  • Psychocatharsis.

 

        • The bringing of so called traumatic experiences and their affective associations into consciousness by interview, hypnosis, or by use of drugs such as sodium amytal.
      • The concept and technique of psychoanalysis was introduced by Sigmund Freud

 

  • The fundamental technique used in psychoanalysis is  Free Association

 

      • Ego defence mechanisms

 

  • Conversion
  • Projection
  • Repression

 

      • Conversion. Transformation of emotions into physical manifestations.
      • Projection. A mental mechanism by which a repressed

complex is regarded as belonging to the external world

or to someone else.

 

  • Repression.

 

        • Act of restraining, inhibiting, or suppressing.
        • An unconscious defence mechanism in which unacceptable ideas and impulses are thrust out or kept out of consciousness.

 

 

  • Transference.

 

        • The unconscious tendency to assign to others the feelings and attitudes associated with significance in one’s early life, especially the patients’ transfer to therapist of feelings and attitudes associated with a parent.
    • Psychosexual development
      • In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
      • Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive.  
      • Psychosexual development

        Psychosexual development

            • Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder
            • Fixation of hysteria occurs in  Phallic phase
        • Mature defence mechanism is exemplified by
        • Anticipation
        • Humor
        • Suppression

         

          • The term “free associations” in psychoanalysis was coined by Sigmund Freud
            • ‘The importance of free association is that the patients spoke for themselves, rather than repeating the ideas of the analyst; they work through their own material, rather than parroting another’s suggestions

      • In free association, psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session, and not to censor their thoughts.
            • This technique is intended to help the patient learn more about what he or she thinks and feels, in an atmosphere of non-judgmental curiosity and acceptance.
            • Psychoanalysis assumes that people are often conflicted between their need to learn about themselves, and their (conscious or unconscious) fears of and defenses against change and self-exposure.
            • The method of free association has no linear or preplanned agenda, but works by intuitive leaps and linkages which may lead to new personal insights and meanings: ‘the logic of association is a form of unconscious thinking’
          • “Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety” was written by Sigmund Freud
          • “Thematic Apperception Test” was designed by Henry Murray
            • The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective psychological test.
            • Proponents of this technique assert that a person’s responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.
          • The term ” Ambivalence” was coined by Eugen Bleuler
            • Ambivalence is a state of having simultaneous conflicting reactions, beliefs, or feelings towards some object.
            • Stated another way, ambivalence is the experience of having an attitude towards someone or something that contains both positively and negatively valenced components
          • Philippe Pinel
            • He was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
            • He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders and has been described by some as “the father of modern psychiatry”.
          • The concept of “super ego” was given by Sigmund Freud
            • The superego is the ethical component of the personality and provides the moral standards by which the ego operates.
            • The superego’s criticisms, prohibitions, and inhibitions form a person’s conscience, and its positive aspirations and ideals represent one’s idealized self-image, or “ego ideal.
          • “Exposure Therapy”, most commonly used treatment for specific phobia, was pioneered by John Wolpe
            • Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy intended to treat anxiety disorders. It involves the exposure of the patient to the feared object or context without any danger, in order to overcome their anxiety.
          • The process of obtaining, organizing and using intellectual knowledge, is known as Cognition
          • “Cognitive Therapy” was developed by Aaron Beck
            • Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses.
            • This involves the individual working collaboratively with the therapist to develop skills for testing and modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors
          • “Interpersonal Therapy” was developed by Gerald Klerman
            • Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a time-limited treatment that encourages the patient to regain control of mood and functioning typically lasting 12–16 weeks.
            • IPT is based on the principle that there is a relationship between the way people communicate and interact with others and their mental health.

      • Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression was developed in the New Haven-Boston Collaborative Depression Research Project by Gerald Klerman, MD, Myrna Weissman, PhD, and their colleagues for the treatment of ambulatory depressed, nonpsychotic, nonbipolar patients.
        • Adolf Meyer is the founder of “Psychobiology”:
        • “Existential Psychoanalysis” was developed by Karl Jaspers
          • Existential psychotherapy is a philosophical method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual’s confrontation with the givens of existence
          • These givens, as noted by Irvin D. Yalom, are: the inevitability of death, freedom and its attendant responsibility, existential isolation (referring to phenomenology), and finally meaninglessness.
          • These four givens, also referred to as ultimate concerns, form the body of existential psychotherapy and compose the framework in which a therapist conceptualizes a client’s problem in order to develop a method of treatment.
          • In the British School of Existential therapy these givens are seen as predictable tensions and paradoxes of the four dimensions of human existence, the physical, social, personal and spiritual realms
          • “Classical Conditioning” was described by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
            • Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a process of behavior modification in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response

      • Operant conditioning : Behaviour   therapy, to change maladaptive behaviours using response as reinforcers
      • The concept of “Operant Conditioning” was described by B.F. Skinner
      • The concept of “Relaxation Therapy” as means of reciprocal inhibition for learned helplessness or anxiety was proposed by Joseph Wolpe
      • The “drive reduction theory of learning” was developed by Clark L.Hull
            • In Learning theory, drive reduction theory is a type of motivational theory
              • Drive reduction is a major cause of learning and behavior.
              • Primary drives are innate drives (e.g. thirst, hunger, and sex), whereas secondary drives are learned by conditioning (e.g. money).
              • Multiple drives lead to quicker learning than a singular drive.
          • “Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)” was designed by Henry Murray
          • “Abreaction” can be used as a method of treatment for Hysteria
            • Abreaction. Described by Sigmund Freud.

      • In psychoanalysis, release of or discharge of emotional tension by consciously recalling or acting out a painful experience that had been either forgotten or repressed.
            • Abreaction may allow this painful or consciously intolerable experience to become bearable because of the insight gained during the process.

      • The method used to bring about abreaction is termed catharsis.
        • “Systematic Desensitization” is an essential mode of treatment  used for Phobias
        • “The Interpretation of Dreams”—is a monumental work of Sigmund Freud
        • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed by J.Charnley Me kinley
        • Alfred Adler coined the term “Inferiority Complex”:
        • The concept of “Transaction Analysis” was developed by Eric Berne
        • Transactional analysis (abbreviated to TA), is a theory in psychology that examines the interactions, or ‘transactions’, between a person and other people.
          • The underlying precept is that humans are social creatures and that a person is a multi-faceted being that changes when in contact with another person in their world.
          • The positions are stated as:
            • I’m OK and you are OK
            • I’m OK and you are not OK
            • I’m not OK and you are OK
            • I’m not OK and you are not OK.
          • “Behaviour Therapy” can be used in

      • Phobia
      • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
      • Anorexia Nervosa
      •