Inflammatory Bowel disease | Anatomy2Medicine
Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Types

Inflammatory Bowel disease

 

  • Crohn disease
      • chronic inflammatory condition
      • affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract (MCQ)
  • most commonly involves the distal ileocecum, small intestine, or colon. (MCQ)
      • tends to affect young people in the second and third decades of life, (MCQ)
      • it can lead to carcinoma involving the small intestine or colon.
        • However, neoplastic transformation is much less frequent in Crohn disease than in ulcerative colitis. (MCQ)
  • Morphology
        • Chronic inflammation involving all layers of the intestinal wall (transmural involvement) (MCQ)
        • Thickening of involved segments, with narrowing of lumen
        • Linear ulceration of the mucosa
        • Submucosal edema with elevation of the surviving mucosa, producing a cobblestone appearance
        • Skip lesions (segments of normal intestine between affected regions) (MCQ)
        • Discrete noncaseating granulomas in some cases
  • Submucosal fibrosis(MCQ)
  • Clinical manifestations
        • Abdominal pain and diarrhea
  • Malabsorption
  • Fever
  • Intestinal obstruction resulting from fibrous stricture
  • Fistulas between loops of intestine and between the intestine, bladder, vagina, and skin (MCQ)
  • extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (MCQ)
  • Polyarthritis
  • Uveitis and episcleritis
  • Sclerosing cholangitis(MCQ)
            • a chronic fibrosing inflammatory process of the biliary system
            • lead to chronic cholestasis and sometimes to portal hypertension
  • Sacroiliitis
          • Skin manifestations, including
  • erythema nodosum (MCQ)
  • pyoderma gangrenosum (MCQ)
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Mucosal inflammation and ulceration limited to the large intestine
      • the rectum is always affected but the entire colon may be involved. (MCQ)
  • Inflammatory changes almost entirely confined to the mucosa and submucosa(MCQ)
      • the most characteristic feature is the crypt abscess, in which there are infiltrates of neutrophils in the crypts of Lieberkühn. (MCQ)
      • Red, granular appearance of the mucosa
  • ulceration may be minimal or quite extensive, with only islands of surviving mucosa remaining.
  • Pseudopolyps (MCQ)
  • mucosal remnants of previous severe ulceration
    • Chronic diarrhea  associated with the passage of blood and mucus
  • the most frequent clinical manifestation is bleeding. (MCQ)
      • Complications
        • Toxic megacolon, (MCQ)
  • a medical emergency in which there is a marked dilation of the colon
    • Perforation of the colon
    • Carcinoma of the colon