Maduramycosis | Anatomy2Medicine
Maduramycosis Causes



  • Subcutaneous mycoses
      • fungal infections of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and bone
      • Causative organisms reside in the soil and decaying or live vegetation.
      • They  are almost always acquired through traumatic lacerations or puncture wounds(MCQ)
      • They  are not transmissible from human to human.
      • Sporotrichosis, is often acquired from the prick of a thorn (MCQ)
      • these infections are more common in individuals who
      • have frequent contact with soil and vegetation
      • wear inadequate protective clothing.
  • Sporotrichosis:
      • characterized by a granulomatous ulcer at the puncture site
      • produce secondary lesions along the draining lymphatics
  • The causative organism is Sporothrix schenckii (MCQ)
        • a dimorphic fungus that exhibits the yeast form in infected tissue and the mycelial form upon laboratory culture. (MCQ)
      • In most patients, the disease is self-limiting but may persist in a chronic form.
      • Dissemination to distant sites is possible in patients with deficiencies in T-cell function (such as in AIDS and lymphomas). (MCQ)
      • Oral itraconazole is the drug of choice. (MCQ)
  • Chromomycosis
      • Also called chromoblastomycosis
      • characterized by warty nodules (MCQ)
      • spread slowly along the lymphatics (MCQ)
      • develop crusty abscesses
      • Pathogens causing this mycosis include several species of pigmented soil fungi (for example, Phialophora and Cladosporium), (MCQ)
      • Surgical removal is done of small lesions
      • More advanced stages of the disease are treated with itraconazole and terbinafine(MCQ)
    • Mycetoma (“Madura foot”):
      • appears as a localized abscess,
      • usually on the feet
      • abscess discharges pus, serum, and blood through sinuses (in this usage, sinus means “abnormal channel”).
      • can spread to the underlying bone and results in crippling deformities
      • The pathogenic agents – Madurella grisea and Exophiala jeanselmei. the defining characteristic of mycetoma is the presence of colored grains, composed of compacted hyphae, in the exudate. (MCQ)
  • color of the grains (black, white, red, or yellow) is characteristic of the causative organism and, therefore, useful in identifying the particular pathogen.
    • There is no effective chemotherapy for fungal mycetoma(MCQ)

Treatment is usually surgical excision(MCQ)