Upper A Limb Muscles Movement Nerve Supply | Anatomy2Medicine
Upper A Limb Muscles Movement Nerve Supply

Upper A Limb Muscles Movement Nerve Supply

 

  • Muscles of the Pectoral Region and Axilla
  • Pectoralis major
  • Origin

 

        • Medial half of clavicle
        • manubrium and body of sternum
        • upper six costal cartilages

 

  • Insertion

 

        • Lateral lip of inter- tubercular groove of humerus

 

  • Nerve

 

        • Lateral and medial pectoral

 

  • Action

 

        • Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm

 

  • Pectoralis minor
  • Origin

 

      • Third, fourth, and fifth ribs

 

  • Insertion

 

      • Coracoid process of scapula

 

  • Nerve

 

      • Medial (and lateral) pectoral

 

  • Action

 

      • Depresses scapula; elevates ribs

 

  • Serratus anterior (MCQ)

 

    • Origin -Upper eight ribs
    • Insertion–  Medial border of scapula
    • Nerve – Long thoracic
    • Action – Rotates scapula upward; abducts scapula with arm and elevates it above the horizontal

Muscles of the Shoulder

 

  • Deltoid

 

      • Origin : Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula
      • Insertion : Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
      • Nerve : Axillary
      • Action : Abducts, adducts, flexes, extends, and rotates arm medially and laterally

 

  • Teres major

 

      • Origin : Dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula
      • Insertion : Medial lip of intertuber- cular groove of humerus
      • Nerve : Lower subscapular
      • Action :Adducts and rotates arm medially

 

  • Teres minor

 

    • Origin Upper portion of lateral border of scapula
    • Insertion : Lower facet of greater tubercle of humerus
    • Nerve : Axillary
    • Action : Rotates arm laterally

 

Muscles of the Arm

 

  • Coracobrachialis

 

      • Origin -Coracoid process
      • Insertion -Middle third of medial surface of humerus
      • Nerve  –Musculocutaneous (MCQ)
      • Action – Flexes and adducts arm

 

  • Biceps brachii

 

    • Origin Long head, supraglenoid tubercle; short head, coracoid process
    • Insertion –Radial tuberosity of radius
    • Nerve  –Musculocutaneous  (MCQ)
    • Action – Flexes arm and forearm, supinates forearm (MCQ)

 

 

  • Muscles of the Anterior Forearm

 

 

 

  • Pronator teres

 

      • O: Medial epicondyle and coronoid process of ulna
      • I: Middle of lateral side of radius
      • N: Median
      • A: Pronates and flexes forearm

 

  • Flexor digitorum superficialis

 

      • O: Medial epicondyle, coronoid process, oblique line of radius
      • I: Middle phalanges of finger
      • N: Median
      • A: Flexes proximal interphalangeal joints, flexes hand and forearm (MCQ)

 

  • Flexor digitorum profundus

 

    • O:Anteromedial surface of ulna, interosseous mem- brane
    • I:Bases of distal phalanges of fingers
    • N:Ulnar and median
    • A:Flexes distal interphalangeal joints and hand (MCQ)

 

 

  • Muscles of the Posterior Forearm
  • Brachioradialis

 

      • O:Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
      • I: Base of radial styloid process
      • N: Radial

 

  • A: Flexes forearm
  • Supinator

 

      • O: Lateral epicondyle, radial collateral and annular ligaments, supinator fossa and crest of ulna
      • I: Lateral side of upper part of radius
      • N: Radial

 

  • A: Supinates forearm
  • Abductor pollicis longus

 

      • O: Interosseous membrane, middle third of posterior surfaces of radius and ulna
      • I: Lateral surface of base of first metacarpal
      • N: Radial

 

  • A: Abducts thumb and hand
  • Extensor pollicis longus

 

      • O:Interosseous membrane and middle third of posterior surface of ulna
      • I:Base of distal phalanx of thumb
      • N: Radial
      • A: Extends distal phalanx of thumb and abducts hand

 

  • Extensor pollicis brevis

 

    • O:Interosseous membrane and posterior surface of middle third of radius
    • I:Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • N:Radial
    • A: Extends proximal phalanx of thumb and abducts hand

 

  • Muscles of the Hand (High yield topic in MD Entrance)

 

  • Abductor pollicis brevis

 

      • O: Flexor retinaculum, scaphoid, and trapezium
      • I: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
      • N: Median
      • A: Abducts thumb

 

  • Adductor pollicis

 

    • O: Capitate and bases of second and third metacarpals (oblique head); palmar sur- face of third metacarpal (transverse head)
    • I: Medial side of base of proximal pha
          • third metacarpal (transverse head)
          • I: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of the thumb
          • N: Ulnar (MCQ)
          • A: Adducts thumb

       

    • Flexor pollicis brevis
          • O: Flexor retinaculum and trapezium
          • I; Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
          • N: Median
          • A: Flexes thumb

       

    • Opponens pollicis
          • O; Flexor retinaculum and trapezium
          • I: Lateral side of first metacarpal
          • N: Median
          • A: Opposes thumb to other digits

       

    • Lumbricals (4)
          • O;Lateral side of tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
          • I; Lateral side of extensor expansion
          • N; Median (two lateral) and ulnar (two medial)
          • A: Flex metacarpophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints

       

    • Dorsal interossei (4) (bipennate)
          • O: Adjacent sides of metacarpal bones
          • I: Lateral sides of bases of proximal phalanges; extensor expansion
          • N: Ulnar
          • A: Abduct fingers; flex metacarpophalangeal joints; extend inter- phalangeal joints

       

    • Palmar interossei (3) (unipennate)
        • O: Medial side of second metacarpal; lateral sides of fourth and fifth metacarpals
        • I: Bases of proximal phalanges in same sides as their origins; extensor expansion
        • N: Ulnar
        • A: Adduct fingers; flex metacarpophalangeal joints; extend interphalangeal joints

      Summary of muscle actions of the upper limb (High yield Topic for MD Entrance)

       

    • Movement of the Scapula
          • Elevation—trapezius (upper part), levator scapulae
          • Depression—trapezius (lower part), serratus anterior, pectoralis minor
          • Protrusion (forward or lateral movement; abduction)—serratus anterior
          • Retraction (backward or medial movement; adduction)—trapezius, rhomboids
          • Anterior or inferior rotation of the glenoid fossa—rhomboid major
          • Posterior or superior rotation of the glenoid fossa—serratus anterior, trapezius

       

    • Movement at the Shoulder Joint (Ball-and-Socket Joint) (MCQ)
          • Adduction—pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid (posterior part)
          • Abduction—deltoid, supraspinatus
          • Flexion—pectoralis major (clavicular part), deltoid (anterior part), coracobrachialis, biceps
          • Extension—latissimus dorsi, deltoid (posterior part)
          • Medial rotation—subscapularis, pectoralis major, deltoid (anterior part), latissimus dorsi,teres major
          • Lateral rotation—infraspinatus, teres minor, deltoid (posterior part)

       

    • Movement at the Elbow Joint (Hinge Joint) (MCQ)
          • Flexion—brachialis, biceps, brachioradialis, pronator teres
          • Extension—triceps, anconeus

       

    • Movement at the Radioulnar Joints (Pivot Joints) (MCQ)
          • Pronation—pronator quadratus, pronator teres
          • Supination—supinator, biceps brachii (MCQ)

       

    • Movement at the Wrist (Radiocarpal) Joint (Condylar or Ellipsoidal Joint) (MCQ)
          • Adduction—flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris
          • Abduction—flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
          • Flexion—flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, abductor pollicis longus
          • Extension—extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris

       

    • Movement at the Metacarpophalangeal Joint (Condyloid Joint) (MCQ)
          • Adduction—palmar interossei (MCQ)
          • Abduction—dorsal interossei (MCQ)
          • Flexion—lumbricals and interossei (MCQ)
          • Extension—extensor digitorum (MCQ)

       

    • Movement at the Interphalangeal Joint (Hinge Joint)
    • Flexion—
            • flexor digitorum superficialis (proximal interphalangeal joint) (MCQ)
            • flexor digitorum profundus (distal interphalangeal joint) (MCQ)

       

    • Extension—
            • lumbricals and interossei (when metacarpophalangeal joint is extended by extensor digitorum) (MCQ)

       

    • Extension—
          • extensor digitorum (when metacarpophalangeal joint is flexed by lumbricals and interossei) (MCQ)

      Summary of muscle innervations of the upper limb (High yield Topic for MD Entrance)

       

    • Muscles of the Anterior Compartment of the Arm: Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • Biceps brachii  (MCQ)
    • Coracobrachialis  (MCQ)
    • Brachialis
    • Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Arm: Radial Nerve
    • Triceps
    • Anconeus
    • Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Forearm: Radial Nerve
          • Superficial layer

       

    • brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus
    • extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris
    • extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi
          • Deep layer

       

    • Supinator  (MCQ)
    • abductor pollicis longus
    • extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis
    • extensor indicis
    • Muscles of the Anterior Compartment of the Forearm: Median Nerve
          • Superficial layer

       

    • pronator teres
    • flexor carpi radialis
    • palmaris longus
    • flexor carpi ulnaris (ulnar nerve)*
          • Middle layer

       

    • flexor digitorum superficialis
          • Deep layer

       

    • flexor digitorum profundus (median nerve and ulnar nerve),* (MCQ)
    • flexor pollicis longus
    • pronator quadratus
    • Thenar Muscles: Median Nerve
    • Abductor pollicis brevis  (MCQ)
    • Opponens pollicis
    • Flexor pollicis brevis (median and ulnar nerves)* (MCQ)
    • Adductor Pollicis Muscle: Ulnar Nerve  (MCQ)
    • Hypothenar Muscles: Ulnar Nerve  (MCQ)
        • Abductor digiti minimi
        • Opponens digiti minimi
        • Flexor digiti minimi
      • Interossei (Dorsal and Palmar) Muscles: Ulnar Nerve  (MCQ)
      • Lumbrical Muscles (Medial Two): Ulnar Nerve   (MCQ)
      • Lumbrical Muscles (Lateral Two): Median Nerve  (MCQ)

      Topic- Upper Limb – Joints and Bones

      Bones of the shoulder girdle

        • Clavicle (Collarbone)
          • Is the first bone to begin ossification during fetal development
          • it is the last one to complete ossification, at 21 years of age.

       

    • Is the only long bone to be ossified intramembranously.
    • Scapula
    • Spine of the Scapula
            • Gives origin for the deltoid and an insertion for the trapezius.

       

    • Acromion