Lower Limb VesselsBLOOD VESSELS OF THE LOWER LIMB | Anatomy2Medicine
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Lower Limb VesselsBLOOD VESSELS OF THE LOWER LIMB

Arteries of the lower limb

    • Superior Gluteal Artery
      • Arises from the internal iliac artery
      • enters the buttock through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle
      • Anastomoses with the lateral and medial circumflex and inferior gluteal arteries.
    • Inferior Gluteal Artery
      • Arises from the internal iliac artery

 

  • enters the buttock through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis.

 

      • Enters the cruciate anastomosis

 

  • also anastomoses with the superior gluteal, internal pudendal, and obturator arteries.

 

    • ObturatorArtery
      • Arises from the internal iliac artery in the pelvis
      • passes through the obturator foramen
      • it divides into anterior and posterior branches.
        • Posterior Branch
          • Gives rise to the acetabular branch that sends an artery to the head of the femur, which is an important source of blood to the femoral head in children.
    • Femoral Artery
      • Begins as the continuation of the external iliac artery
      • Branches:
        • Superficial Epigastric Artery
        • Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery
        • Superficial External Pudendal Artery
          • sends inguinal branches and anterior scrotal (or labial) branches.
        • Deep External Pudendal Artery
        • Profunda Femoris (Deep Femoral) Artery
          • Arises from the femoral artery within the femoral triangle.
          • Gives rise to the medial and lateral femoral circumflex and muscular branches.
          • Provides, in the adductor canal, four perforating arteries that perforate and supply the adductor magnus and hamstring muscles

 

  • The first perforating artery sends an ascending branch, which joins the cruciate anastomosis of the buttock.

 

        • Medial Femoral Circumflex Artery
          • Arises from the femoral or profunda femoris artery in the femoral triangle.
          • divides into an ascending branch, which anastomoses with branches of the superior and inferior gluteal arteries
          • transverse branch joins the cruciate anastomosis.
        • Lateral Femoral Circumflex Artery
          • Arises from the femoral or profunda femoris artery
          • Divides into three branches

 

  • an ascending branch, which forms a vascular circle with branches of the medial femoral circumflex artery around the femoral neck and also anastomoses with the superior gluteal artery
  • transverse branch

 

              • which joins the cruciate anastomosis

 

  • descending branch

 

              • which anastomoses with the superior lateral genicular branch of the popliteal artery.
        • Descending Genicular Artery
    • Popliteal Artery
      • Is a continuation of the femoral artery at the adductor hiatus  runs through the popliteal fossa.
      • Is vulnerable to injury from fracture of the femur and dislocation of the knee joint.
      • Gives rise to five genicular arteries:

 

  • Superior lateral genicular artery ,Superior medial genicular artery ,Inferior lateral genicular artery ,Inferior medial genicular artery , Middle genicular artery

 

    • Posterior Tibial Artery
      • Arises from the popliteal artery

 

  • Its pulsation is often palpable between the medial malleolus and the calcaneal tendon.

 

      • Gives rise to the peroneal (fibular) artery
      • Gives rise also to the posterior medial malleolar,
      • terminates by dividing into the medial and lateral plantar arteries.
    • Medial Plantar Artery
      • Gives rise to a superficial branch, which supplies the big toe
      • deep branch, forms three superficial digital branches.
    • Lateral Plantar Artery
      • Forms the plantar arch by joining the deep plantar branch of the dorsalis pedis artery.

 

  • The plantar arch gives rise to four plantar metatarsal arteries.

 

    • Anterior Tibial Artery
      • Arises from the popliteal artery
      • Its pulsation may be felt between the two malleoli and lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon.
      • Gives rise to the anterior tibial recurrent artery, anterior medial and lateral malleolar arteries at the ankle.
      • it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery.
    • Dorsalis Pedis Artery
      • Begins anterior to the ankle joint midway between the two malleoli as the continuation of the anterior tibial artery.
      • Descends on the dorsum of the foot between the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus muscles, where its pulsation can be felt.
      • Gives rise to the medial tarsal, lateral tarsal, arcuate, and first dorsal metatarsal arteries.
      • The arcuate artery gives rise to the second, third, and fourth dorsal metatarsal arteries.

 

  • Terminates as the deep plantar artery

 

        • joins the lateral plantar artery to form the plantar arch.
        • Exhibits a pulsation that may be felt on the navicular and cuneiform bones lateral to the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus.
    • Deep Veins of the Leg

 

  • Are the venae comitantes to the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.

 

      • Popliteal Vein

 

  • Ascends through the popliteal fossa behind the popliteal artery.

 

    • Femoral Vein
      • Accompanies the femoral artery as a continuation of the popliteal vein through the upper two thirds of the thigh.
      • Has valves, receives tributaries corresponding to branches of the femoral artery, and is joined by the great saphenous vein, which passes through the saphenous opening.