Physiology | Anatomy2Medicine


Thrombotic Microangiopathies Include   Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS)   TTP was defined as the pentad of (MCQ)   Fever Thrombocytopenia microangiopathic hemolytic anemia transient neurologic deficits   renal failure. HUS is also associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia but is distinguished by the (MCQ) absence of neurologic symptoms prominence of acute […]

Muscle Spindle,NEET PG

Muscle Spindle

Muscle Fibers Extrafusal fibers innervated by a motoneurons (large cells in the ventral horn) the most plentiful (MCQ)   provide the force for muscle contraction. (MCQ)   Intrafusal fibers innervated by Gamma motoneurons (MCQ) are encapsulated in sheaths to form muscle spindles are too small to generate force for muscle contraction. Nuclear bag fibers (MCQ) […]

Co2 Transport,Blood

Co2 Transport

Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood Forms of co2 in blood CO2 is carried in the blood in three forms: as dissolved CO2 as carbaminohemoglobin (CO2 bound to hemoglobin as bicarbonate (HCO3-), which is a chemically modified form of CO2. HCO3- is quantitatively the most important of these forms. Dissolved CO2 Henry’s law, concentration of CO2 […]

cell membrane analogy,cell membrane

Cell Membrane

Plasma Membrane The lipid bilayer divides the cell into functional compartments.   The fluid mosaic model is the accepted view of the molecular nature of plasma membranes.(MCQ)   proteins traverse the lipid bilayer and are incorporated within the lipids. Proteins and lipids can move freely in the plane of the membrane, producing the fluid nature […]

cardiac muscle contraction mechanism

Cardiac muscle contraction

  The cardiac muscle cell is composed of sarcomeres. The sarcomeres, which run from Z line to Z line (MCQ) composed of thick and thin filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, whose globular heads have actin-binding sites and ATPase activity. The thin filaments are composed of three proteins: actin, tropomyosin, and tro- ponin […]

Respiration regulation

Control of Breathing Breathing is controlled by centers in the brain stem with four components to control system: chemoreceptors for O2 or CO2 mechanoreceptors in the lungs and joints control centers for breathing in the brain stem (medulla and pons) respiratory muscles, whose activity is directed by the brain stem centers   Voluntary control can […]



Thyroid Hormones The thyroid hormones are iodinated derivatives of tyrosine   Iodide is oxidized to iodine by thyroperoxidase.(MCQ) Formation of the Thyroid Hormones   Iodine is incorporated into tyrosine residues to form monoiodotyrosine (MIT) or diiodotyrosine (DIT).   Two DITs are coupled to form Levothyroxine (T4). One MIT and two DITs are coupled to form […]

Smooth muscle contraction

Smooth muscle contraction

Smooth Muscle Structure of Smooth Muscle Specialized contacts between individual smooth muscle cells have two functions: in communication and as mechanical linkages. Gap junctions (nexus) are areas of close opposition (~2 nm) between plasma membranes of separate cells. Gap junctions serve as a low-resistance electrical coupling structure. (MCQ) Attachment plaques are characterized by a 10- […]

Small intestine absorption,NEET PG

Small intestine absorption

Intestinal Fluid and Electrolyte Transport   Together, the small and large intestines absorb approximately 9 L of fluid daily (MCQ)   What is the source of this large volume of fluid that is absorbed? there is slightly more than 9 L of fluid in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, volume of liquid in the […]

Respiratory cycle,NEET PG ,Physiology

Respiratory cycle

Forces Acting on the Lungs Lung recoil refers to forces that develop in the lung wall during expansion. Recoil increases as the lung enlarges. Recoil always acts to collapse the lung. Intrapleural pressure (also called pleural pressure, or PPL) the pressure in the thin film of fluid between the lung and chest wall PPL is […]