blog | Anatomy2Medicine - Part 9

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic Anemia syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure and attendant pancytopenia (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia). Persistent marrow aplasia occur most commonly viral hepatitis of the non-A, non-B, non-C, non-G type (MCQ) Fanconi anemia autosomal recessive disorder  (MCQ)   caused by defects in a multiprotein complex that is required for DNA repair  (MCQ)   Marrow hypofunction […]

Thyroid carcinoma

Thyroid carcinoma

Neoplasms of the Thyroid   Solitary thyroid nodule   palpably discrete swelling within an otherwise apparently normal thyroid gland. majority are localized, non-neoplastic conditions a dominant nodule in multinodular goiter   simple cysts foci of thyroiditis   benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas. benign neoplasms outnumber thyroid carcinomas by a ratio of nearly 10 : […]


Wilms tumor

Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) Wilms tumor is the most common primary renal tumor in children (MCQ)   most cases are diagnosed after the first year of life. (MCQ)   arises from nephrogenic blastemal cells(MCQ) malignant cells are primitive small round blue cells   they may differentiate into a variety of distinct cell types.   Classically, Wilms […]



Irreversible Injury irreversible Cell death presents as   necrosis   apoptosis   Necrosis Fundamentally is  a cytoplasmic driven process.   It is a pathologic process resulting from the swelling and denaturation of the cell hypoxia leads to depleted ATP reserves and opening of ion channels leads to cellular swelling and enzyme release from digestive lysozymes […]


Thrombotic Microangiopathies Include   Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS)   TTP was defined as the pentad of (MCQ)   Fever Thrombocytopenia microangiopathic hemolytic anemia transient neurologic deficits   renal failure. HUS is also associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia but is distinguished by the (MCQ) absence of neurologic symptoms prominence of acute […]

Disseminated intravascular coagulat


Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) an acute, subacute, or chronic thrombohemorrhagic disorder characterized by the excessive activation of coagulation, which leads to the formation of thrombi in the microvasculature of the body. there is consumption of platelets, fibrin, and coagulation factors there is secondarily, activation of fibrinolysis   Etiology and Pathogenesis.   DIC is not a […]

Polycystic Kidney Disease Symptoms

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Autosomal-dominant (adult) polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) characterized by multiple expanding cysts of both kidneys that ultimately destroy the renal parenchyma cause renal failure. (MCQ) autosomal dominant with high penetrance. Despite the autosomal dominant inheritance, the manifestation of the disease requires mutation of both alleles of either PKD gene universally bilateral cysts initially involve only portions […]

Infective Endocarditis Symptoms

Infective Endocarditis

Acute infective endocarditis a fulminant disease. causative organism is usually Staphylococcus aureus.(MCQ) It may present as an invasive infection with myocardial abscess or valve destruction. Subacute infective endocarditis has a slower clinical course. can present insidiously, sometimes as just a low-grade fever. The causative organisms are less virulent and include: .(MCQ) Viridans streptococci Streptococcus bovis […]

C Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Types

C Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

  Immunohemolytic Anemia Antibodies bind to red cells, leading to their premature destruction. Diagnosis requires the detection of antibodies and/or complement on red cells from the patient direct Coombs antiglobulin test patient’s red cells are mixed with sera containing antibodies that are specific for human immunoglobulin or complement. (MCQ) If either immunoglobulin or complement is […]

B Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Types

B Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

  Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)   It results from acquired mutations in the phosphatidylinositol glycan complementation group A gene (PIGA), an enzyme that is essential for the synthesis of certain cell surface proteins. (MCQ) it is the only hemolytic anemia caused by an acquired genetic defect (MCQ) Proteins are anchored into the lipid bilayer in […]