blog | Anatomy2Medicine - Part 3
Limbic System

Limbic System

  Limbic System is considered to be the anatomic substrate underlying behavioral and emotional expression.   plays a role in feeling, feeding, fighting, fleeing, and undertaking mating activity.   expresses itself through the hypothalamus via the autonomic nervous system (ANS).   Major components and connections include structures of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and midbrain.   Orbitofrontal […]

spinal cord lesions

Lesions of the Spinal Cord

Lesions of the Spinal Cord   Lower Motor Neuron Lesions result from damage to motor neurons of the ventral horns or motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei.   Neurologic deficits resulting from LMN lesions   Flaccid paralysis Muscle atrophy (amyotrophy) Hypotonia Areflexia   loss of muscle stretch reflexes (MSRs) (knee and ankle jerks) loss […]



The Hypothalamus is a division of the diencephalon. lies within the floor and ventral part of the walls of the third ventricle.   functions primarily in the maintenance of homeostasis.   subserves three systems: the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the endocrine system the limbic system.   Surface Anatomy of the Hypothalamus is visible only from […]


Cerebral hemisphere

The Cerebral Cortex contains 20 billion nerve cells. consists of the neocortex (90%) and the allocortex (10%).   Neocortex (isocortex; homogenetic cortex)   is a six-layered cortex.   Allocortex (heterogenetic cortex)   is three-layered and includes two types   Archicortex   includes the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus.   Paleocortex   includes the olfactory cortex. […]


Cerebral circulation

  Arteries of the Brain   supply 15% of the cardiac output to the brain. provide the brain with 20% of the oxygen used by the body. have a normal blood flow of 50 ml/100 g of brain tissue per minute. consist of two pairs of vessels, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, […]



The Cerebellum develops from the alar plates (rhombic lips) of the metencephalon. is located infratentorially within the posterior fossa it lies between the temporal and occipital lobes and the brainstem. three primary functions maintenance of posture and balance maintenance of muscle tone coordination of voluntary motor activity. Major Divisions of the Cerebellum consists of a […]

brainstem lesions

Brainstem Leisions

Lesions of the Brainstem most frequently syndromes of arterial occlusion or circulatory insufficiency that involve the vertebrobasilar system.   Vascular Lesions of the Medulla   result from occlusion of the vertebral artery or its branches   anterior and posterior spinal arteries posterior inferior cerebellar artery [PICA]). Medial medullary syndrome   results from occlusion of the […]

brainstem function


The Brainstem includes the medulla, pons, and mesencephalon (midbrain). gives rise to cranial nerve (CN) III to CN XII.   receives its blood supply from the vertebrobasilar system. Medullar Oblongata (Myelencephalon) contains autonomic centers that regulate respiration, circulation, and gastrointestinal motility.   gives rise to CN IX to CN XII. The nuclei of CN V […]

brain anatomy

Brain Gross Anatomy

The Brain weighs 350 g in the newborn and 1400 g in the adult. The brain is classified into six postembryonic divisions:   Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Pons medulla oblongata cerebellum.   Telencephalon consists of the cerebral hemispheres and the basal ganglia The cerebral hemispheres contain the lateral ventricles.   Cerebral hemispheres consist of six lobes […]

Basal Ganglia

Basal Ganglia

Basal Ganglia consists of subcortical nuclei (gray matter) within the cerebral hemispheres. Components   Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Amygdala (amygdaloid nuclear complex) Claustrum   Groupings of the basal ganglia   Striatum (neostriatum)   consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen have a common embryologic origin.   Lentiform nucleus   consists of the putamen […]