blog | Anatomy2Medicine - Part 27
Nephron,Nephron Anatomy,Nephron Structure


  The kidneys act as endocrine organs, releasing renin, erythropoietin, and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 into the circulation. (MCQ)   Blood from renal arteries is delivered to the glomeruli At one fifth of cardiac output, this is the highest tissue-specific blood flow (MCQ) The amount of a substance excreted by the kidney is determined by the amount […]

Asthma Drugs

Adrenergic agonists stimulate bet2-adrenoceptors inhibit the release of mediators stimulate mucociliary clearance. Useful for the treatment of the acute bronchoconstriction (exacerbations) of asthma. Short-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists Albuterol,levalbuterol,pirbuterol,metaproterenol These agents have enhanced beta 2-receptor selectivity. generally administered by inhalation their onset of action is 1–5 minutes Long-term use of these agents for the treatment of […]

Beta Blocker

Adrenergic receptor antagonists The pharmacologic effects of predominantly cardiovascular lowered peripheral vascular resistance lowered blood pressure. Epinephrine reversal alpha-Adrenoceptor antagonists convert the pressor action of sympathomimetic agents with both alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity to a depressor response; this is referred to as epinephrine reversal. Specific drugs Phentolamine intravenously administered short-acting competitive antagonist at both […]



Pharmacokinetics describes changes in plasma drug concentration over time. Distribution and elimination Features of One-compartment model The drug appears to distribute instantaneously after IV administration of a single dose. If the mechanisms for drug elimination, such as biotransformation by hepatic enzymes and renal secretion, are not saturated following the therapeutic dose, a semilog plot of […]

Streptococci Pneumoniae


gram- positive, nonmotile, and catalase negative (MCQ) Most are aerotolerant anaerobes because they grow fermentatively even in the presence of oxygen. Classification of streptococci Hemolytic properties on blood agar Hemolysis is considered the first step in the classification of streptococci. Alpha-Hemolytic streptococci result in the appearance of a green pigment that forms a ring around […]

vitamins types and sources


Water-soluble vitamins Vitamins serve as cofactors for enzymes.   Thiamine pyro phosphate   Thiamine pyrophosphate(TPP) is formed from ATP and the vitamin thiamine.   TPP is involved in the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha ketoacids.   The alpha-carbon of the alpha-ketoacid becomes covalently attached to TPP, and the carboxyl group is released as CO2.   Thiamine […]

Median Nerve

Median Nerve (C5–T1) Median nerve arises from the medial & lateral cords of the brachial plexus It is also known as labourer’s nerve (MCQ) Runs down the anteromedial aspect of the arm at the elbow, it lies medial to the brachial artery on the brachialis muscle it has no muscular branches in the arm Passes […]

Medical School entry to passing USMLE Steps to residency to Fellowship to MD is a tedious journey

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The patient load created by Obamacare demands greater Physician availability in USA

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