blog | Anatomy2Medicine - Part 10
Hemolytic Anemia Causes

Hemolytic Anemia

HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS physiologic destruction of senescent red cells takes place within mononuclear phagocytes mononuclear phagocytes are abundant in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Extravascular hemolysis More common cause of hemolytic anemias caused by alterations that render the red cell less deformable principal clinical features of extravascular hemolysis anemia splenomegaly, jaundice Some hemoglobin inevitably escapes […]

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Types

Inflammatory Bowel disease

  Crohn disease chronic inflammatory condition affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract (MCQ) most commonly involves the distal ileocecum, small intestine, or colon. (MCQ) tends to affect young people in the second and third decades of life, (MCQ) it can lead to carcinoma involving the small intestine or colon. However, neoplastic transformation is much […]

Thalassemia Types


  Thalassemias characterized by deficient production of either α- or β-globin chains of hemoglobin. Heme synthesis is unaffected. (MCQ) β-Thalassemias most common forms of thalassemia caused by defects in the promoter sequence, in introns, or in coding regions of the β-globin gene. (MCQ) β-Thalassemia major also known as Mediterranean anemia or Cooley anemia. It results […]



Acute rheumatic fever immunologically mediated systemic inflammatory disease typically occur 1–6 weeks following group A streptococcal pharyngitis. .(MCQ) pathologic lesion is the Aschoff body, .(MCQ) a lesion of lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding bundles of collagen. Other manifestations of acute rheumatic carditis include   Myocarditis Pericarditis   valve vegetations. Acute rheumatic valvulitis leads to   thickening, […]



  Collagen   Most abundant protein in the human body.   Extensively modified by  posttranslational modification. Organizes and strengthens extracellular matrix.   Type I Most common (90%)—Bone (made by osteoblasts), Skin, Tendon, dentin, fascia, cornea, late wound repair Type I: bone.   ↓ production in osteogenesis imperfecta type I.   Type II Cartilage (including hyaline), […]

Jaundice Symptoms


Jaundice Conjugated bilirubin (direct) is easily excreted because it is soluble in water. Unconjugated bilirubin (indirect) is not soluble in water. Jaundice is clinically apparent when the serum total bilirubin is above 3 mg/dL (MCQ) Hemolysis causes elevated indirect bilirubin. (MCQ) Impaired conjugation is caused by reduced hepatic uptake resulting from liver disease (eg, hepatitis) […]

Cell Organelles

Cell organelles

Cell organelles   Rough endoplasmic reticulum   Site of synthesis of secretory (exported) proteins and of N-linked oligosaccharide addition to many proteins.   Nissl bodies (RER in neurons)—synthesize peptide neurotransmitters for secretion. Free ribosome   unattached to any membrane   site of synthesis of cytosolic and organellar proteins.   Mucus-secreting goblet cells of the small […]

Degenerative Calcification


  Dystrophic calcification When the deposition occurs locally in dying tissues(MCQ) it occurs despite normal serum levels of calcium and in the absence of derangements in calcium metabolism. metastatic calcification the deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissues (MCQ) it almost always results from hypercalcemia secondary to some disturbance in calcium metabolism. Dystrophic calcification […]


Cell cycle phases Cyclins CDKs

action of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) of which there are several. The activity of the CDKs is dependent on interaction with cyclins. However, the presence of CDK inhibitory proteins, CIPs, results in inhibition of the activity of CDKs. CIPs bind and inhibit CDK1, 2, 4, and 6 complexes. Thus, an increase in the activity […]

Sickel Cell Anemia Causes

Sickle Cell Anemia

  Hemoglobin S disorders Conditions that confer resistance to falciparum malarial infection.(MCQ) hemoglobin S gene erythrocyte G6PD deficiency absence of Duffy blood group antigens Hemoglobin S arises from a point mutation in codon 6 of the β-globin gene (MCQ) results in a substitution of valine for glutamic acid(MCQ) DNA defect is basis for prenatal diagnosis […]