blog | Anatomy2Medicine

Antibiotics – Macrolides

Erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin Erythromycin a macrolide antibiotic inhibits protein synthesis binds irreversibly to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit (MCQ) It inhibits aminoacyl translocation  (MCQ) Inhibits formation of initiation complexes. (MCQ) it is usually bacteriostatic, but at higher concentrations can be bactericidal. (MCQ) Resistance plasmid-encoded prevalent in most strains of staphylococci and, to some extent, […]

Chloramphenicol Uses

Antibiotics – Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. binds to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit (MCQ) block the action of peptidyltransferase  (MCQ) prevents amino acid incorporation into newly formed peptides. High concentrations inhibit eukaryote mitochondrial protein synthesis. Resistance results from  the production of a plasmid-encoded acetyltransferase capable of inactivating the drug. absorbed rapidly and distributed throughout body fluids. […]



  Helicobacter curved or spiral organisms (MCQ) have a rapid, corkscrew motility resulting from multiple polar flagella. (MCQ) Microaerophilic (MCQ) produces urease(MCQ) causes acute gastritis and duodenal and gastric ulcers unusual in its ability to colonize the stomach, with low pH Transmission is from person to person, because the organism has not been isolated from […]

Tetracyclines Classification and Uses

Antibiotics -Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines tetracycline ,oxytetracycline , demeclocycline , doxycycline , minocycline, tigecycline bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes (MCQ) prevents the binding of aminoacyl tRNA to the acceptor site on the mRNA-ribosome complex and addition of amino acids to the growing peptide (MCQ) inhibits bacterial protein synthesis (MCQ) these agents are bacteriostatic. (MCQ) Resistance […]

Peristalsis,peristalsis esophagus


Swallowing Swallowing is coordinated by the medullary swallowing center   It is stimulated by sensory input from the mouth via cranial nerves V, IX, and X. (MCQ)   2 Phases The oropharyngeal phase characterized by movement of food to the rear of mouth, elongation of the soft palate During this phase , the following events […]

Clostridium tetani


Clostridia anaerobic gram-positive rods In contrast , other clinically important gram-positive rods are aerobic. (MCQ) large, gram-positive, blunt-ended rods They form endospores position of the developing spore within the vegetative cell is useful in identifying the species Most species are motile. Clostridia cannot use free oxygen as the terminal electron  (MCQ) acceptor in energy production […]

Insulion functions,Diabates,Drugs


  Endocrine pancreas   The beta cells compose 65% of the islet and secrete insulin. alpha cells com-pose 20% of the islet and secrete glucagon. delta (delta) cells compose 10% of the islet and secrete somato-statin. The remaining cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide or other peptides. INSULIN Structure and Synthesis of Insulin Insulin is a peptide […]

Antibiotics - Aminoglycosides

Antibiotics – Aminoglycosides

Aminoglycosides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis they are bactericidal against most gram-negative aerobic bacteria.(MCQ) they are polycations that initially passively diffuse via porin channels through the outer membrane of gram-negative aerobes bacteria. Transport across the inner membrane requires active uptake that is dependent on electron transport (gram- negative aerobes only), the so-called energy dependent phase I […]



  Cryptococcosis caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans especially abundant in soil containing bird (especially pigeon) droppings (MCQ) has a characteristic polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the budding yeast cell, which is observable on a background of India ink (MCQ) A positive capsule stain on CSF can give a quick diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis, but false […]

Antibiotics - Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

Antibiotics – Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

Cephalosporins Drugs that  penetrate CSF  (MCQ) cefuroxime (second generation) cefotaxime ceftizoxime Probenecid slows secretion of cephalosporins. Drug resistance Each newer generation is increasingly resistant to penicillinases. Third-generation cephalosporins  are sensitive to another class of beta-lactamase, the cephalosporinases  (MCQ) cephalosporinase genes are generally located on chromosomes as opposed to plasmids All are inactive against enterococci and […]

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